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Home >> Research Bibliography

Research Bibliography

Select the research category you would like to review.

† Denotes articles that involve or discuss Body Weight Support Therapy
* Denotes articles that use or are about the LiteGait or another Mobility Research Product

Basic Science REVIEW

Andersson O, Forssberg H, Grillner S, Wallen P. (1981). Peripheral feedback mechanisms acting on the central pattern generators for locomotion in fish and cat. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 59, 713-726.

Armstrong DM. (1986). Supraspinal contributions to the initiation and control of locomotion in the cat. Progress in Neurobiology, 26, 273-361.

Arshavsky YI, Deliagina TG, Orlovsky GN. (1997). Pattern Generation. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 7, 781-789.

Burke RE, Degtyarenko AM, Simon ES. (2001). Patterns of locomotor drive to motorneurons and last-order interneurons: clues to the structure of the CPG. Journal of Neurophysiology, 86(1), 447-462.

Dettmann M, Linder M, Sepic S. (1987). Relationship among walking performance, postural stability and functional assessment of the hemiplegic patient. Am J Phys Med, 66, 77-90.

Duysens J, Clarac F, Cruse H. (2000). Load-regulating mechanisms in gait and posture: Comparative aspects. Physiological Reviews, 80, 83-133.

Hultborn H, et al. (1998). How do we approach the locomotor network in the mammalian spinal cord? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 860, 70-82.

Jordan LM. (1998). Initiation of locomotion in mammals. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 860, 83-93. Mori S. (1998). Neurophysiology of locomotion: Recent advances in the study of locomotion. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 860, 55-78.

Pearson KG. (1995). Proprioceptive regulation of locomotion. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 5, 786-791.

Pearson KG, Misiaszek JE, Fouad K. (1998). Enhancement and resetting of locomotor activity by muscle afferents. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 860, 203-215.

Rossignol S. (1996). Neural control of stereotypic limb movements. In: Rowell LB, Shepherd JT. Handbook of Physiology; Section 12, Exercise: Regulation and integration of multiple systems. New York: John Wiley. 174-216.

Taub E, Uswatte G, Pidikiti R. (1999). Constraint-Induced movement therapy: A new family of techniques with broad application to physical rehabilitation-A clinical review. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 35(3), 237-251.

​Whelan PJ. (1996). Control of locomotion in the decerebrate cat. Progress in Neurobiology, 49, 481-515. Please contact us if you need help finding any of the above articles or for any further information.

Please contact us if you need help finding any of the above articles or for any further information.

Basic Science  Locomotion 

Andersson O, Grillner S. (1981). Peripheral control of the cat's step cycle I. Phase dependent effects of ramp-movements of the hip during "fictive locomotion". Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 113, 89-101.

Andersson O, Grillner S. (1983). Peripheral control of the cat's step cycle II. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 118, 229-239.

Beresovskii VK. (1990). Structure of spinal cord locomotor strip in the cat. Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, 50, 41-46.

Blaszczyk J, Loeb GE. (1993). Why cats pace on the treadmill. Physiology and Behavior, 53, 501-507.

Boroojerdi B, Ferbert A, Foltys H, Kosinski CM, Noth J, Schwarz M. (1999). Evidence for a non-orthostatic origin of orthostatic tremor. Journal of Neurology,
Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 66(3), 284-288.

Canu MH, Falempin M. (1998). Effect of hindlimb unloading on interlimb coordination during treadmill locomotion in the rat. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 78(6), 509-515.

Dale N, Kuenzi F. (1997). Ionic currents, transmitters and models of motor pattern generators. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 7(6), 790-796.

De Leon RD, London NJS, Roy RR, Edgerton VR. (1999). Failure analysis of stepping in adult spinal cats.Progress in Brain Research, 123, 341-348.

Deliagina TG, Fagerstedt P. (2000). Responses of reticulospinal neurons in intact lamprey to vestibular and visual inputs. Journal of Neurophysiology, 83, 864-878.

Deliagina TG, Orlovsky GN, Pavlova GA. (1983). The capacity for generation of rhythmic oscillations is distributed in the lumbosacral spinal cord of the cat. Experimental Brain Research, 53, 81-90.

Deliagina TG, Zelenin PV, Fagerstedt P, Grillner S, Orlovsky GN. (2000). Activity of reticulospinal neurons during locomotion in the freely behaving lamprey. Journal of Neurophysiology, 83, 853-863.

Dietz V. (1998). Evidence for a load receptor contribution to the control of posture and locomotion.Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 22, 495-499.

Drew T, Dubuc R, Rossignol S. (1986). Discharge patterns of reticulospinal and other reticular neurons on chronic, unrestrained cats walking on a treadmill. Journal of Neurophysiology, 55, 375-401.

Duysens J, Van de Crommert HWAA. (1998). Neural control of locomotion; Part 1: The central pattern generator from cats to humans. Gait and Posture, 7, 131-141.

Eidelberg E, Story JL, Walden JG, Meyer BL. (1981). Anatomical correlates of return of locomotor function after partial spinal cord lesions in cats. Experimental Brain Research, 42(1), 81-88.

Field EC, Stein PSG. (1997). Spinal cord coordination of hindlimb movements in the Turtle: Intralimb temporal relationships during bilateral scratching and swimming. Journal of Neurophysiology, 78, 1394-1403.

Forssberg H, Grillner S, Halbertsma J. (1980). The locomotion of the low spinal cat I. Coordination within a hindlimb. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 108, 269-281.

Forssberg H, Grillner S, Halbertsma J, Rossignol S. (1980). The locomotion of the low spinal cat II. Interlimb coordination. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 108, 283-295.

Forssberg H, Grillner S, Rossignol S. (1975). Phase dependent reflex reversal during walking in chronic spinal cats. Brain Research, 85, 103-107.
Fukuyama H, et al. (1997). Brain functional activity during gait in normal subjects: A SPECT study.Neuroscience Letters, 228, 183-186.

Grillner S, Dubuc R. (1988). Control of locomotion in vertebrates: Spinal and supraspinal mechanisms.Advances in Neurology, 47, 425-453.

Grillner S, Ekeberg O, Manira AE, Lansner A, Parker D, Tegner J, Wallen P. (1998). Intrinsic function of a neuronal network-a vertebrate central pattern generator. Brain Research Review, 26, 184-197.

Grillner S, Zangger P. (1984). The effect of dorsal root transection on the efferent motor pattern in the cat's hindlimb during locomotion. Acta Physiology Scandinavica, 120, 393-405.

Guertin P. (2010). Oral Administration of a Tri-Therapy for Central Pattern Generator Activation in Paraplegic Mice: Proof-of-Concept of Efficacy. Biotechnology Journal, 5(4), 421-426.

Kably B, Drew T. (1998). Corticoreticular pathways in the cat II. Discharge activity of neurons in area 4 during voluntary gait modifications. Journal of Neurophysiology, 80(1), 406-24.

Leblond H, Menard A, Gossard JP. (1998). Vestibulo-and reticulospinal control of the extensor half-center in locomotion. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 860, 563-565.

Mackay M. (2002). Central Pattern Generation of Locomotion: A Review of the Evidence. Physical Therapy, 82.1, 69-83.

Massion J, Dufosse M. (1988). Coordination between posture and movement: why & how? NIPS, 3, 88-93.

Matsuyama K, Drew T. (2000). Vestibulospinal and reticulospinal neuronal activity during locomotion in the intact cat I. Walking on a level surface. Journal of Neurophysiology, 84(5), 2237-2256.

Matsuyama K, Drew T. (2000). Vestibulospinal and reticulospinal neuronal activity during locomotion in the intact cat II. Walking on an inclined plane. Journal of Neurophysiology, 84(5), 2257-2276.

Mori S, Matsui T, Kuze B, Asanome M, Nakajima K, Matsuyama K. (1998). Cerebellar-induced locomotion: Reticulospinal control of spinal rhythm generating mechanism in cats. Neuroscience Research, 30, 257-269.

Mori S, Matsui T, Kuze B, Asanome M, Nakajima K, Matsuyama K. (1999). Stimulation of a restricted region in the midline cerebellar white matter evokes coordinated quadrupedal locomotion in the decerebrate cat. Journal of Neurophysiology, 82, 290-300.

Pearson KG, Rossignol S. (1991). Fictive motor patterns in chronic spinal cats. Journal of Neurophysiology, 66, 1874-1887.
Prentice SD, Drew T. (2001). Contributions of the reticulospinal system to the postural adjustments occurring during voluntary gait modifications. Journal of Neurophysiology, 85(2), 679-698.

Rossignol S, Chau C, Brustein E, Giroux N, Bouyer L, Barbeau H, Reader TA. (1998). Pharmacological activation and modulation of the central pattern generator for locomotion in the cat. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 860, 346-359.

† Singh A. (2011). Role of Spared Pathways in Locomotor Recovery after Body-Weight-Supported Treadmill Training in Contused Rats. Journal of Neurotrauma.

Smith JL, Smith LA, Zernicke RF, Hoy M. (1982). Locomotion in exercised and nonexercised cats cordotomized at two or twelve weeks of age. Experimental Neurology, 76, 393-413.

Stein PSG, Victor JC, Field EC, Currie SN. (1995). Bilateral control of hindlimb scratching in the spinal turtle: Contralateral spinal circuitry contributes to the normal ipsilateral motor pattern of fictive rostral scratching. Journal of Neurosceince, 15, 4343-4355.

Please contact us if you need help finding any of the above articles or for any further information.

Basic Science Learning

Barbeau H, Rossignol S. (1987). Recovery of locomotion after chronic spinalization in the adult cat. Brain Research, 412, 84-95.

Brustein E, Rossignol S. (1998). Recovery of locomotion after ventral and ventrolateral spinal lesions in the cat I. Deficits and adaptive mechanisms. Journal of Neurophysiology, 80, 1245-1267.

De Leon RD, Hodgson JA, Roy RR, Edgerton VR. (1998). Locomotor capacity attributable to step training versus spontaneous recovery after spinalization in adult cats. Journal of Neurophysiology, 79, 1329-1340.

De Leon RD, Hodgson JA, Roy RR, Edgerton VR. (1999). Retention of hindlimb stepping ability in adult spinal cats after the cessation of step training. Journal of Neurophysiology, 81, 85-94.

De Leon RD, Tamaki H, Hodgson JA, Roy RR, Edgerton VR. (1999). Hindlimb locomotor and postural training modulates glycinergic inhibition in the spinal cord of the adult spinal cat. Journal of Neurophysiology, 82, 359-369.

Dobkin B. (1996). Recovery of locomotor control. The Neurologist, 2(4), 239-249.

Edgerton RE, Roy RR, Hodgson JA, Prober RJ, de Guzman CP, de Leon R. (1992). Potential of adult mammalian lumbosacral spinal cord to execute and acquire improved locomotion in the absence of supraspinal input. Journal of Neurotrauma, 9, S119-S128.

Gruner JA, Altman J, Spivack N. (1980). Effects of arrested cerebellar development on locomotion in the rat. Cinematographic and electromyographic analysis. Experimental Brain Research, 40(4), 361-373.

Hodgson JA, Roy RR, de Leon, R, Dobkin B, Edgerton VR. (1994). Can the mammalian lumbar spinal cord learn a motor task? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 26, 1491-1497.

Lovely RG, Gregor RJ, Roy RR, Edgerton VR. (1986). Effects of training on the recovery of full-weight-bearing stepping in the adult spinal cat. Experimental Neurology, 92, 421-435.

Lovely RG, Gregor RJ, Roy RR, Edgerton VR. (1990). Weight-bearing hindlimb stepping in treadmill-exercised adult spinal cats. Brain Research, 514, 206-218.

Rossignol S, Drew T, Brustein E, Jiang W. (1999). Locomotor performance and adaptation after partial or complete spinal cord lesions in the cat. Progress in Brain Research, 123, 349-365.

Smith JL, Edgerton VR, Eldred E, Zernicke RF. (1983). The chronic spinalized cat: A model for neuromuscular plasticity. Birth defects original article series, 19, 357-373.

Suresh Babu R, Muthusamy R, Namasivayam A. (2000). Behavioral assessment of functional recovery after spinal cord hemisection in the bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata). Journal of the neurological Sciences, 178(2), 136-152.

Whelan PJ, Pearson KG. (1997). Plasticity in reflex pathways controlling stepping in the cat. Journal of Neurophysiology, 78, 1643-1650.

Please contact us if you need help finding any of the above articles or for any further information.

Basic Science Motive Circuit

Armstrong DM. (1986). Supraspinal contributions to the initiation and control of locomotion in the cat.Progress in Neurobiology, 26, 273-361.

De Olmos JS, Heimer L. (1999). The concepts of the ventral striatopallidal system and extended amygdala.Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 877, 1-32.

Groenewegen HJ, Wright CI, Beijer AV. (1996). The nucleus accumbens: gateway for limbic structures to reach the motor system? Progress in Brain Research, 107, 485-511.

Ouchi Y, Okada H, Yoshikawa E, Nobezawa S, Futatsubashi M. (1999). Brain activation during maintenance of standing postures in humans. Brain, 122, 329-338.

Shimamura M, Kogure I. (1983). Discharge patterns of reticulospinal neurons corresponding with quadrupedal leg movements in thalamic cats. Brain Research, 230, 27-34.
Please contact us if you need help finding any of the above articles or for any further information.


Basic Science Physiological / Pharmacological

Adriani W, Felici A, Sargolini F, Roullet P, Usiello A, Oliverio A, Mele A. (1998). N-methyl-D-aspartate and dopamine receptor involvement in the modulation of locomotor activity and memory processes.Experimental Brain Research, 123(1-2), 52-59.

Barbeau H, Julien C, Rossignol S. (1987). The effects of clonidine and yohimbine on locomotion and cutaneous reflexes in the adult chronic spinal cat. Brain Research, 437(1), 83-96.

Barbeau H, Rossignol S. (1990). The effects of serotonergic drugs on the locomotor pattern and on cutaneous reflexes of the adult chronic spinal cat. Brain Research, 514(1), 55-67.

Chau C, Barbeau H, Rossignol S. (1998). Early locomotor training with clonidine in spinal cats. Journal of Neurophysiology, 79(1), 392-409.

Chau C, Barbeau H, Rossignol S. (1998). Effects of intrathecal alpha1-and alpha2-noradrenergic agonists and norepinephrine on locomotion in chronic spinal cats. Journal of Neurophysiology, 79(6), 2941-2963.

Giroux N, Brustein E, Chau C, Barbeau H, Reader TA, Rossignol S. (1998). Differential effects of the noradrenergic agonist clonidine on the locomotion of intact, partially and completely spinalized adult cats. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 860, 517-520.

Liste I, Guerra MJ, Caruncho HJ, Labandeira-Garcia JL. (1997). Treadmill running induces striatal Fos expression via NMDA glutamate and dopamine receptors. Experimental Brain Research, 115(3), 458-468.

Liste I, Rodriguez-Pallares J, Caruncho HJ, Labandeira-Garcia JL. (1999). Locomotor-activity-induced changes in striatal levels of preprotachykinin and preproenkephalin mRNA. Regulation by the dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems. Brain Research. Molecular Brain Research, 70(1), 74-83.

Marcoux J, Rossignol S. (2000). Initiating or blocking locomotion in spinal cats by applying noradrenergic drugs to restricted lumbar spinal segments. Journal of Neuroscience, 20(22), 8577-8585.

Pierce RC, Kalivas PW. (1997). A circuitry model of the expression of behavioral sensitization to amphetamine-like psychostimulants. Brain Research. Brain Research Reviews, 25(2), 192-216.

Remy-Neris O, Barbeau H, Daniel O, Boiteau F, Bussel B. (1999). Effects of intrathecal clonidine injection on spinal reflexes and human locomotion in incomplete paraplegic subjects. Experimental Brain Research, 129(3), 433-440.

Rossignol S, Barbeau H. (1993). Pharmacology of locomotion: an account of studies in spinal cats and spinal cord injured subjects. The Journal of the American Paraplegia Society, 16(4), 190-196.

Rossignol S, Chau C, Brustein E, Giroux N, Bouyer L, Barbeau H, Reader TA. (1998). Pharmacological activation and modulation of the central pattern generator for locomotion in the cat. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 860, 346-359.

Rossignol S, Giroux N, Chau C, Marcoux J, Brustein E, Reader TA. (2001). Pharmacological aids to locomotor training after spinal injury in the cat. Journal of Physiology, 533(Pt1), 65-74.

Please contact us if you need help finding any of the above articles or for any further information.

Clinical Spinal Cord Injury
† Adams MM, Hicks AL. (2011). Comparison of the Effects of Body-Weight-Supported Treadmill Training and Tilt-Table Standing on Spasticity in Individuals with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury. Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine, 34(5), 488-497.

Alexeeva N, et al. (2011). Comparison of Training Methods to Improve Walking in Persons with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury-A Randomized Clinical Trial. The Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine, 34(4), 362-379.

† Bailey SN. (2010). Neurotherapeutic and Neuroprosthetic Effects of Implanted Functional Electrical Stimulation For Ambulation After Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury. Journal of Rehabilitation & Research Development, 47(1), 7-16.

Barbeau H, Fung J, Visintin M. (1999). New Approach to retrain gait in stroke and spinal cord injured subjects. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 13, 177-178.

Barbeau H, Ladouceur M, Norman KE, Pepin A, Leroux A. (1999). Walking after spinal cord injury: Evaluation, treatment, and functional recovery. Archives of Physical Medicine Rehabilitation, 80, 225-235.

Barbeau H, Rossignol S. (1994). Enhancement of locomotor recovery following spinal cord injury. Current Opinion in Neurology, 7, 517-524.

Barrière G, Leblond H, Provencher J, and Serge Rossignol. (2008, April). Prominent Role of the Spinal Central Pattern Generator in the Recovery of Locomotion after Partial Spinal Cord Injuries. The Journal of Neuroscience, 28(15), 3976-3987.

Basso DM. (2000). Neuroanatomical substrates of functional recovery after experimental spinal cord injury: Implications of basic science for human spinal cord injury. Physical Therapy, 80, 808-817.

† Behrman AL, Bowden MG, Nair PM. (2006). Neuroplasticity After Spinal Injury and Training: An Emerging Paradigm Shift in Rehabilitation and Walking Recovery. Physical Therapy, 86, 1406-1427.

† Behrman AL, et al. (2005). Locomotor training progression and outcomes after incomplete spinal cord injury. Physical Therapy, (85), 1356-137l.

† Behrman AL, et al. (2008). Locomotor Training Restores Walking in a Nonambulatory Child With Chronic, Severe, Incomplete Cervical Spinal Cord Injury. Physical Therapy, 88, 580-590.

Behrman A, Harkema S. (2000). Locomotor Training After Human Spinal Cord Injury: A Series of Case Studies. Phys The, 80, 688-700.

† Bowden MG, et al. (2008). Beyond Gait Speed: A case report of multidimensional approach to locomotor rehabilitation outcomes in incomplete spinal cord injury. Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy, 32, 129-138.

Bruehlmeier M, Dietz V, Leenders KL, Roelcke U, Missimer J, Curt A. (1998). How does the human brain deal with a spinal cord injury? European Journal of Neuroscience, 10(12), 3918-3922.

Calancie B, Lutton S, Broton. (1996). Central nervous system plasticity after spinal cord injury in man: Interlimb reflexes and the influence of cutaneous stimulation. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 101, 304-315.

Calancie B, Needham-Shropshire B, Jacobs P, Willer K, Zych G, Green BA. (1994). In voluntary stepping after chronic spinal cord injury: Evidenced for a central rhythm generator for locomotion in man. Brain, 117, 1143-1159.

† Carvalho D, Abreu DC, Junior AC, Rondina JM, Cendes F. (2008). Muscle hypertrophy in quadriplegics with combined electrical stimulation and body weight support training. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 31, 171-175.

† Carvalho D, Cliquet A. (2005). Energy expenditure during rest and treadmill gait training in quadriplegic subjects. Spinal Cord, 43, 658-663.

† Carvalho DCL, Zanchetta MC, Sereni JM, Cliquet Jr A. (2005). Metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses of tetraplegic subjects during treadmill walking using neuromuscular electrical stimulation and partial body weight support. Spinal Cord, 43, 400-405.

Colombo G, Wirz M, Dietz V. (2001). Driven gait orthosis for improvement of locomotor training in paraplegic patients. Spinal Cord, 39(5), 252-255.
† Cotie LM. (2010). Leg Skin Temperature with Body-Weight-Supported Treadmill and Tilt-Table Standing Training After Spinal Cord Injury. Spinal Cord, 49(1), 149-153.

† Coupaud S, Jack LP, Hunt KJ, Allan DB. (2009). Muscle and bone adaptation after treadmill training in incomplete Spinal Cord Injury: a case study using peripheral Quantitative computed Tomography. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact, 9(4), 288-297.

† Dietz V, Colombo G, Jensen L. (1994). Locomotor activity in spinal man. Lancet, 344, 1260-1263.

Dietz V, Colombo G, Jensen L, Baumgartner L. (1995). Locomotor capacity of spinal cord in paraplegic patients. Annals of Neurology, 37, 574-582.

Dietz V, Nakazawa K, Wirz M, Erni T. (1999). Level of spinal cord lesion determines locomotor activity in spinal man. Experimental Brain Research, 128, 405-409.

Dietz V, Wirz M, Colombo G, Curt A. (1998). Locomotor capacity and recovery of spinal cord function in paraplegic patients: A clinical and electrophysiological evaluation. Electroencephalogogy and Clinical Neurophysiology, 109, 140-153.

Dietz V, Wirz M, Curt A, Colombo G. (1998). Locomotor pattern in paraplegic patients: Training effects and recovery of spinal cord function. Spinal Cord, 36, 380-390.

Dietz V, Wirz M, Jensen L. (1997). Locomotion in Patients With Spinal Cord Injuries. Physical Therapy, 77(5), 508-516.

Dimitrijevic MR, Gerasimenko Y, Pinter MM. (1998). Evidence for a spinal central pattern generator in humans. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 860, 360-376.

† Ditor DS, MacDonald MJ, Kamath MV, Bugaresti J, Adams M, McCartney N, Hicks AL. (2005). The effects of body-weight supported treadmill training on cardiovascular regulation in individuals with motor-complete SCI. Spinal Cord, 43, 664-673.

Dobkin B, Edgerton V, Fowler E. (1992). Sensory input during treadmill training alters rhythmic locomotor EMG output in subjects with complete spinal cord injury. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience. Anaheim, CA, 1403.

Dobkin B, Edgerton V, Fowler E, Hodgson J. (1992). Training induces rhythmic locomotor EMG patterns in subjects with complete SCI. Neurology, 42, 207-208.

† Dobkin B, et al. (2006). Weight-Supported Treadmill vs Over Ground Training for Walking After Acute Incomplete SCI. Neurology, 66, 484-493.
Dobkin BH. (2000). Spinal and supraspinal plasticity after incomplete spinal cord injury: correlations between functional magnetic resonance imaging and engaged locomotor networks. Progress in Brain Research, 128, 99-111.

† Dobkin BH. (2012, May). Quasi-Experimental Study of Weight-Supported Treadmill Training for Myelopathy. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 93, 919-921.

† Dobkin BH, et al. (2003). Methods for a Randomized Trial of Weight-Supported Treadmill Training versus Conventional Training for Walking during Inpatient Rehabilitation after Incomplete Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 17(3), 153-167.

Dobkin BH, Harkema S, Requejo P, Edgerton VR. (1995). Modulation of locomotor-like EMG activity in subjects with complete and incomplete spinal cord injury. Journal of Neurologic Rehabilitation, (9), 183-190.

Dudley-Javoroski S, Shields RK. (2008). Muscle and bone plasticity after spinal cord injury: Review of adaptations to disuse and to electrical muscle stimulation. Journal of Rehab Research & Development, 45, 283-296.

Edgerton VR, et al. (2001). Retraining the injured spinal cord. Journal of Physiology, 533.1, 15-22.
Field-Fote E, Dietz V. (2007). Single joint perturbation during gait: Preserved compensatory response patter in spinal cord injured subjects. Clinical Neurophysiology, 118, 1607-1616.

Field-Fote EC. (2000). Spinal cord control of movement: implications for locomotor rehabilitation following spinal cord injury. Physical Therapy, 80(5), 477-484.

† Field-Fote EC. (2001). Combined use of body weight support, functional electric stimulation, and treadmill training to improve walking ability in individuals with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury.Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 82(6), 818-824.

† Giangregorio LM, Hicks AL, Webber CE, Phillips SM, Craven BC, Bugaresti JM, McCartney N. (2005). Body weight supported treadmill training in acute spinal cord injury: impact on muscle and bone.Spinal Cord, 43, 649-657.

† Gorassini MA, Norton JA, Nevett-Duchchere J, Roy FD, Yang JF. (2009). Changes in locomotor muscle activity after treadmill training in subject with incomplete spinal cord injury. Journal of Neurophysiology, 101(2), 969-979.

Harkema SJ, Hurley SL, Patel UK, Requejo PS, Dobkin BH, Edgerton VR. (1997). Human lumbosacral spinal cord interprets loading during stepping. Journal of Neurophysiology, 77, 797-811.

Herman R, D'Luzansky S, Willis W, Dilli S. (2002). Spinal cord stimulation facilitates functional walking in a chronic, incomplete spinal cord injured. Spinal Cord, 40, 65-68.

† Hicks AL, et al. (2005). Long-term body-weight-supported treadmill training and subsequent follow-up in a person with chronic SCI: effects on functional walking ability and measures of subjective well-being.Spinal Cord, 43, 291-298.

Hicks AL, Martin Ginis KA. (2008). Treadmill training after spinal cord injury: It's not just about the walking.Journal of Rehab Research & Development, 45, 241-248.

Hiersemenzel LP, Curt A, Dietz V. (2000). From spinal shock to spasticity: neuronal adaptations to a spinal cord injury. Neurology, 54(8), 1574-1582.

Hulsebosch CE, Hains BC, Waldrep K, Young W. (2000). Bridging the gap: from discovery to clinical trials in spinal cord injury. Journal of Neurotrauma, 17(12), 1117-1128.

Israel J, Campbell D, Kahn J, Hornby T. (2006). Metabolic Costs and Muscle Activity Patterns During Robotic-and Therapist-Assisted Treadmill Walking in Individuals with Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury.Physical Therapy, 86(11), 1466-1478.

† Knikou M, Angeli CA, Ferreira CK, Harkema SJ. (2008). Soleus H-reflex modulation during body weight support treadmill walking in spinal cord intact and injure subjects. Experimental Brain Research, 11p.

Ladouceur M, Barbeau H. (2000). Functional electrical stimulation-assisted walking for persons with incomplete spinal injuries: changes in the kinematics and physiological cost of overground walking.Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 32(2), 72-79.

Ladouceur M, Pepin A, Norman KE, Barbeau H. (1997). Recovery of walking after spinal cord injury.Advances in Neurology, 72, 249-255.

Lajoie Y, Barbeau H, Hamelin M. (1999). Attentional requirements of walking in spinal cord injured patients compared to normal subjects. Spinal Cord, 37, 245-250.

† Leahy TE. (2010). Impact of a Limited Trial of Walking Training Using Body Weight Support and a Treadmill on the gait Characteristics of an Individual with Chronic, Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury.Physiotherapy Theory & Practice, 26(7), 483-489.

Lynskey JV, Belanger A, Jung R. (2008). Activity-dependent plasticity in spinal cord injury. Journal of Rehab Research & Development, 45, 229-240.

* Mayer R. (2007, October). Rocky road to recovery: Colorado's Craig Hospital specializes in TBI and SCI patients. Advance for Physical Therapist and PT Assistants, 10-11.

Muir GD, Steeves JD. (1997). Sensorimotor stimulation to improve locomotor recovery after spinal cord injury. Trends in Neuroscience, 20, 72-77.

† Musselman KE. (2009). Training of Walking Skills Overground and on the Treadmill: Case Series on Individuals With Complete Spinal Cord Injury. Physical Therapy, 89(6), 601-611.

Nooijen CFJ. (2009). Gait Quality is Improved by Locomotor Training in Individuals with SCI Regardless of Training Approach. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, 6(36), 1-11.

† Norman KE, Pepin A, Barbeau H. (1998). Effects of drugs on walking after spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord, 36(10), 699-715.

† Norman KE, Pepin A, Ladouceur M, Barbeau H. (1995). A treadmill apparatus and harness support for evaluation and rehabilitation of gait. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 76, 772-778.

† Nymark J, DeForge D, Barbeau H, Badour M, Bercovitch S, Tomas J, Goudreau L, MacDonald J. (1998). Body weight support treadmill gait training in the subacute recovery phase of incomplete spinal cord injury. Journal of Neuorologic Rehabilitation, 12, 119-138.

Padula W, et al. (2009). Modifying Postural Adaptation Following a CVA Through Prismatic Shift of Visuo-spatial egocenter. Brain Injury, 23(6), 566-576.

Pearson KG. (2000). Plasticity of neuronal networks in the spinal cord: modifications in response to altered sensory input. Progress in Brain Research, 128, 61-70.

Pinter MM, Dimitrijevic MR. (1999). Gait after spinal cord injury and the central pattern generator for locomotion. Spinal Cord, 37, 531-537.

* Prosser L. (2007). Locomotor training within inpatient rehabilitation program after pediatric incomplete spinal cord injury. Physical Therapy, 87, 1224-1232.

† Protas EJ, Holmes SA, Qureshy H, Johnson A, Lee D, Sherwood AM. (2001). Supported treadmill ambulation training after spinal cord injury: a pilot study. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 82(6), 825-831.

† Puliti B. (2006, March). From Dreams to Destiny: Robotic body weight supported treadmill training teach SCI patients to walk again. Advance for Physical Therapist and PT Assistants, 42-43.

Requejo P, Harkema S, Edgerton V, Dobkin B. (1995). Direct relationship between the level of weight bearing and EMG activity during treadmill stepping in control and spinally injured subjects. J Neurotrauma, 12, 137.

Rossignol S, Chau C, Brustein E, Belanger M, Barbeau H, Drew T. (1996). Locomotor capacities after complete and partial lesions of the spinal cord. Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, 56, 449-463.

* Spiess MR, Jaramillo JP, Behrman AL, Teraoka JK, Patten C. (2012). Unexpected Recovery after Robotic Locomotor Training at Physiologic Stepping Speed-a single case design. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.

Turiel M. (2010). Robotic Treadmill Training Improves Cardiovascular Function in Spinal Cord Injury Patients. Internal Journal of Cardiology.

Wernig A. (1999) Laufband (treadmill) therapy in SCI persons. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 13, 175-176.

Wernig A. (2006). Letter to the Editor-Long-term body-weight supported treadmill training and subsequent follow-up in persons with chronic SCI: effects on functional walking ability and measures of subjective well-being. Spinal Cord, 44, 265-266.

† Wernig A, Muller S. (1991). Improvement of walking in spinal cord injured persons after treadmill training. In: Wernig A (ed.). Plasticity of Motoneuronal Connections, Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers, 475-485.

Wernig A, Muller S.(1992). Laufband locomotion with body weight support improved walking in persons with severe spinal cord injuries. Paraplegia, 30, 229-238.

Wernig A, Muller S, Nanassy A, Cagol E. (1995). Laufband therapy based on "Rules of Spinal Locomotion" is effective in spinal cord injured persons. European Journal of Neuroscience, 7, 823-829.

Wernig A, Nanassy A, Muller S. (1998). Maintenance of locomotor abilities following Laufband (treadmill) therapy in para-and tetraplegic persons: Follow-up studies. Spinal Cord, 36, 744-749.

Wernig A, Nanassy A, Muller S. (1999). Laufband (treadmill) therapy in incomplete paraplegia and tetraplegia. J Neurotrauma, 16, 719-726.

† Wessels M. (2010). Body-Weight Supported Gait Training for Restoration of walking in People with an Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review. Journal of Rehabilitative Medicine, 42.

† Whitman JM, et al. (2006). A comparison between two physical therapy treatment programs for patients with lumbar spinal stenosis: a randomized clinical trial. Spine, 31, 2541-2549.

† Wickelgren I, et al. (1998). Teaching the Spinal Cord to Walk. Science, 279, 319-320.

† Wirz M, Colombo G, Dietz V. (2001). Long term effects of locomotor training in spinal humans. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 71(1), 93-96.

† Young DL. (2009). Body Weight Supported Treadmill Training at Very Low Treatment Frequency for a Young Adult with Incomplete Cervical Spinal Cord Injury. NeuroRehabilitation, 25, 261-270.

Zomlefer M, Gaines R, McLeary L. (1983). Locomotor control in spinal cord injured humans. Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, 188, 2.

 Please contact us if you would like help locating any of these papers.

Clinical Cerebral Palsy
 Begnoche DM, Pitetti K. (2007). Effects of Traditional Treatment and Partial Body Weight Treadmill Training on the Motor Skills of Children with Spastics Cerebral Palsy a Pilot Study. Physical Therapy, 19, 11-19.

† Borggraefe I, et al. (2008). Improved Gait Parameters After Robotic-Assisted Locomotor Treadmill Therapy in a 6-Year-Old Child with Cerebral Palsy. Movement Disorder, 23(2), 280-283.

† Borggraefe I, et al. (2010). Robotic-assisted treadmill therapy improves walking and standing performance in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. European Journal of Paediatric Neurology, 14, 496-502.

† Bundonis J. (2003, October). Up and Walking-A case example of partial weight bearing treadmill training.Advance for Physical Therapists & PT Assistants, 13(23), 39-40.

†* Cherng RJ, Liu CF, Lau TW, Hong RB. (2007). Effect of treadmill training with body weight support on gait and gross motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Am J Phys Med Rehabil, 86, 548-555.

Day J, et al. (2004). Locomotor Training with Partial Body Weight Support on a Treadmill in a Nonambulatory Child with Spastic Tetraplegic Cerebral Palsy: A Case Report. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 16, 106-113.

†* DiBiasio PA, Lewis CL. (2012). Exercise Training Utilizing Body Weight-Supported Treadmill Walking With a Young Adult with Cerebral Palsy who was Non-Ambulatory. Physiotherapy Theory & Practice.

†* Dodd KJ, Foley S. (2007, February) Partial body-weight-supported treadmill training can improve walking in children with cerebral palsy: a clinical controlled trial. Dev Med Child Neurol 49(2), 101-5.

† Farrell E. (2010). Description of a Multifaceted Rehabilitation Program Including Overground Gait Training for a Child with Cerebral Palsy: A Case Report. Physiotherapy Theory & Practice. 26(1). 56-61.

†* Flanagan N, Jacoby N, Johnson P, Krzak. Short Term Intensive: Physical Therapy to Address Balance and Gait Efficiency in an Adolescent who has Cerebral Palsy.

Grunt S, Et al.(2010, Oct). Effect of Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy on Gait in Children with Bilateral Spastic Paresis:Kinematic and EMG-Pattern Changes. Neuropediatrics, 41(5), 209-216

Hoang HX, Reinbolt JA. (2012). Crouched posture maximizes ground reaction forces generated by muscles. Gait & Posture, Article In Press, 4p.

† Johnston TE. (2011). Effects of a Supported Speed Treadmill Training Exercise Program on Impairment and Function for Children with Cerebral Palsy. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 53(8), 742-750.

†* Krzak J, Flanagan A, Johnson P, Jacoby. Preliminary Study of the Effects of Short Term Intensive treadmill training for children who have Cerebral Palsy.

† Kurz MJ. (2011, April). Body weight supported treadmill training improves the regularity of the stepping kinematics in children with Cerebral Palsy. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 14(2), 87-93.

Leonard CT, Hirschfeld H, Forssberg H. (1991). The development of independent walking in children with cerebral palsy. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 33(7), 567-577.

† Matsuno VM. (2010). Analysis of Partial Body Weight Support During Treadmill and Overground Walking of Children with Cerebral Palsy. Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia, 14(5), 404-410.

* Mattern-Baxter K. (2009). Effects of Intensive Locomotor Treadmill Training on Young Children with Cerebral Palsy. Pediatric Physical Therapy.

† Mattern-Baxter K. (2009). Effect of partial body weight supported treadmill training on children with cerebral palsy. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 21, 12-22.

† Mayson TA. (2012, June). Parent goals as outcome measures for children receiving treadmill training: A series of case reports. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 15(3), 219-222.

† McNevin NH, Coraci L, Schafer J. (2000). Gait in adolescent cerebral palsy: The effect of partial unweighting. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 81, 525-528.

† Mutlu A. (2009). Treadmill Training with Partial Body-Weight Support in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 51(4), 268-275.

Patritti BL. (2010). Robotic Gait Training in an Adult With Cerebral Palsy: A Case Report. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 2, 71-75.

† Phillips J, et al. (2007). Ankle dorsiflexion fMRI in children with cerebral palsy undergoing intensive body-weight-supported treadmill training: a pilot study. Developmental Medicine & Children Neurology, 49, 39-44.

†* Provost B, et al. (2007). Endurance and Gait in Children With Cerebral Palsy After Intensive Body Weight-Supported Treadmill Training. Pediatric Physical Therapy.

† Richards CL, Malouin F, Dumas F, Marcoux S, Lepage C, Menier C. (1997). Early and intensive treadmill locomotor training for young children with cerebral palsy: A feasibility study. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 9, 158-165.

Russell SD, Bennett BC, Kerrigan DC, Abel MF. (2007) Determinants of gait as applied to children with cerebral palsy. Gait and Posture, 26, 295-300.

† Schindl MR, Forstner C, Kern H, Hesse S. (2000). Treadmill training with partial body weight support in nonambulatory patients with cerebral palsy. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 81, 301-306.

Trahan J, Malouin F. (2002). Intermittent intensive physiotherapy in children with cerebral palsy: a pilot study. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 44, 233-239.

Van Den Noort JC, Scholtes VA,Becher JG, Harlaar J. (2010, April). Evaluation of the Catch in Spasticity Assessment in Children With Cerebral Palsy. Arch Phys Med Rehabi,Vol 91,615-623

Van Den Noort JC, Scholtes VA, Harlaar J. (2009). Evaluation of clinical spasticity assessment in Cerebral palsy using inertial sensors. Gait & Posture, 30,138-143

Van Der Krogt MM. (2009). The Effect of Walking Speed on Hamstring Length and Lengthening Velocity in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy. Gait & Posture, 29(4), 640-644.

Van Der Krogt MM. (2009). Walking Speed Modifies Spasticity Effects in Gastrocnemius and Soleus in Cerebral Palsy Gait. Clinical Biomechanics, 24(5), 422-428.

Van Der Krogt MM, Doorenbosch CAM, Becher JG, Harlaar J. (2009). Walking speed modifies spasticity effects in gastrocnemius and soleus in cerebral palsy gait.Clinical Biomechanics, 24(5), 422-428.

Willoughby, KL. (2009). A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Treadmill Training with Children with Cerebral Palsy. Disability and Rehabilitation, 31(24), 1971-1979.

Zwaan E. (2012). Synergy of EMG patterns in gait as an objective measure of muscle selectivity in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Gait & Posture, 35, 111-115.

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Clinical Head Injury
†* Brown T, Mount J, Rouland BL, Kautz KA, Barnes RM, Kim J. (2005). Body Weight-Supported Treadmill Training Versus Conventional Gait Training for People with Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil, 20(5), 402-415.

†* Clark RA, et al. (2012). Coordination of Dynamic Balance During Gait Training in People With Acquired Brain Injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.

† Freund JE. (2010). Use of Trunk Stabilization and Locomotor Training in an Adult with Cerebellar Ataxia: A Single System Design. Physiotherapy Theory & Practice, 26(7), 447-458.

† Fritz S, et al. (2011). Feasibility of Intense Mobility Training to Improve Gait, Balance, and Mobility in persons with Chronic Neurological Conditions: A Case Series. Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy, 35(3), 141-147.

†* Moriello G, Frear M, Seaburg K. (2009). The Recovery of Running Ability in an Adolescent Male After Traumatic Brain Injury: A Case Study. Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy, 33(2), 111-120.

†* Mossberg K, Orlander E, Norcross J. (2008). Cardiorespiratory capacity after weight-supported treadmill training in patients with traumatic brain injury. Physical Therapy, 87, 1-11.

† Scherer M. (2007). Gait rehabilitation with body weight-supported treadmill training for a blast injury survivor with traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 21, 93-100.

†* Seif-Naraghi AH, Herman RM. (1999). A novel method for locomotion training. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 14, 146-162.

Wainberg M, Barbeau H. (1982). Applicability of progressive weight bearing in rehabilitation of neurologically impaired gait. Can J Neurol Sci, 12.

† Williams GP. (2010). Evaluation of Conceptual Framework for Retaining High-Level Mobility Following Traumatic Brain Injury: Two Case Reports. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 25(3), 164-172.

† Wilson DJ, Powell M, Gorham JL, Childers M. (2006). Ambulation training with and without partial weightbearing after traumatic brain injury: Results of a randomized, controlled trial. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 85, 68-74.

†* Wing K. (2007, December). Living Proof: Mobility Research offers neurological patient light at the end of the tunnel. Advance for Directors in Rehabilitation, 47.


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Clinical Parkinson's

Bello O, Sanchez JA, Fernandez-del-Olmo M. (2008). Treadmill walking in Parkinson's Disease patients: adaptation and generalization effect. Movement Disorders, 23(9), 1243-1249.

Broughton B. (2004, April). Parkinson's researchers take steps toward improving motor deficits.Biomechanics, 43.

Dietz V, Colombo G. (1998). Influence of body load on the gait pattern in Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders, 13, 255-261.

† Fisher B, Fong M, Yip J. (2004, August). Treadmill training improves function in Parkinson's patients.Biomechanics, 57-61.

† Fisher BE, et al. (2008). The effect of exercise training in improving motor performance and corticomotor excitability in people with early Parkinson's Disease. Archive of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 89, 1221-1229.

Hanankawa T, Fukuyama H, Katsumi Y, Honda M, Shibasaki H. (1999). Enhanced lateral premotor activity during paradoxical gait in Parkinson's disease. Annuals of Neurology, 45, 329-336.

Hanankawa T, Katsumi Y, Fukuyama H, Honda M, Hayashi T, Kimura J, Shibasaki H. (1999). Mechanisms underlying gait disturbance in Parkinson's disease: A single photon emission computed tomography study. Brain, 122, 1271-1282.

† Miyai I. (2002). Long-Term Effect of Body Weight-Supported Treadmill Training in Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 83, 1370-1373.

† Miyai I, Fujimoto Y, Ueda Y, Yamamoto H, Nozaki S, Saito T, Kang J. (2000). Treadmill training with body weight support: Its effect on Parkinson's disease. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 81, 849-852.

Morris M, Matyas T, Iansek R, Summers J. (1996). Temporal stability of gait in parkinson's disease. J Phys Ther, 76(7), 763-777.

Pahapill PA, Lozano AM. (2000). The pedunculopontine nucleus and Parkinson's disease. Brain, 123(Pt9), 1767-1783.

† Petzinger GM. (2010). Enhancing Neuroplasticity in the Basal Ganglia: The Role of Exercise in Parkinson's Disease. Movement Disorders, 25(S1), S141-S145.

Roggendorf J, et al. (2011). Arm Swing Asymmetry in Parkinson's Disease Measured with Ultrasound Based Motion Analysis During Treadmill Gait. Gait & Posture, 35(1), 116-120.

† Schlick C, Struppler A, Boetzel K, Plate A, Ilmberger J. (2011). Dynamic Visual Cueing in Combination with Treadmill Training for Gait Rehabilitation in Parkinson Disease. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 91(1), 75-79.

† Toole T, Maitland CG, Warren E, Hubmann MF, Panton L. (2005). The effects of loading and unloading treadmill walking on balance, gait, fall risk, and daily function in Parkinsonism. NeuroRehabilitation, 20, 307-322.

 Please contact us if you need help finding any of the above articles or for any further information.

Clinical Other

† Barbeau H, Blunt R. (1991). A Novel interactive locomotor approach using body weight support to retrain gait in spastic paretic subjects. In: Wernig A (ed.). Plasticity of Motoneuronal Connections. Amsterdam: Elvsevier Science Publishers, 461-474.

Barbeau H, Fung J. (1992). New experimental approaches in the treatment of spastic gait disorders. Med Sport Sci, 36, 234-246.

† Beer S, et al. (2008). Robot-assisted gait training in multiple sclerosis: a pilot randomized trial. Multiple Sclerosis, 14, 231-236.

De Jong Z. (2005). Safety in Exercise with Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. Current Opinion in Rheumatology, 17, 177-182.

Hakkinen A. (2001). A Randomized Two-Year Study of the Effects of Dynamic Strength Training on Muscle Strength, Disease Activity, Functional Capacity, and Bone Mineral Density in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 44(3), 515-522.

Hall JM. (2008). Promoting Physical Activity and Exercise in Older Adults with Developmental Disabilities.Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation, 24(1), 64-73.

† Hesse S, et al. (2003). Treadmill Training With Partial Body-Weight Support After Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 84, 1767-1773.

Hunter D, Smith Cole E, Murray JM, Murray TD. (1995) Energy expenditure of below-knee amputees during harness-supported treadmill ambulation. The Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 21(5), 268-76.

Iversen MD. (2010). Physical Therapy for Older Adults with Arthritis: What is Recommended? International Journal of Clinical Rheumatology, 15, 37.

Kanai A, Kiyama T, Genda E, Suzuki Y. (2008). Biomechanical investigation of ambulatory training in patients with acetabula dysplasia. Gait and Posture, 28, 52-57.

* Kline Mangione K, Axen K, Haas F. (1996). Mechanical unweighting effects on treadmill exercise and pain in elderly people with osteoarthritis of the knee. Physical Therapy, 76, 387-394.

Landers M. (2009). Challenge-Oriented Gait and Balance Training in Sporadic Olivopontocerebellar Atrophy: A Case Study. Journal of Neurological Physical Therapy, 33, 160-168.

Liston R, Mickelborough J, Harris B, Hann AW, Tallis RC. (2000). Conventional physiotherapy and treadmill re-training for higher-level gait disorders in cerebrovascular disease. Age and Ageing, 29, 311-318.

† Lo AC, Triche EW. (2008). Improving gait in Multiple Sclerosis using robot-assisted, body weight supported treadmill training. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 22, 661-671.

† Logan LR. (2011). Rehabilitation Techniques to Maximize Spasticity Management. Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, 18(3), 203-211.

Looper J. (2010). Effects of Treadmill Training and Supramalleolar Orthosis Use on Motor Skill Development in Infants with Down Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Physical Therapy, 90(3), 382-390.

Muir SW, et al. (2012). Gait assessment in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: The effect of dual-task challenges across the cognitive spectrum. Gait & Posture, 35, 96-100.

† Pilutti LA, et al. (2011). Effects of 12 weeks of supported treadmill training on functional ability and quality of life in progressive multiple sclerosis-a pilot study. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 92(1), 31-36.

Svendsen B. (1996, March). Treatment of the hemiplegic patient: new strategies for gait training. Phys Ther Prod, 32-34.

Thomas A. (2009). Recommendations for the Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis, Using Various Therapy Techniques, Based on Categorizations of a Literature Review. Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy, 32(1), 33-38.

Tuckey J, Greenwood. (2004). Rehabilitation after severe Guillain-Barre syndrome: the use of the partial body weight support. Physiotherapy Research International, 9, 96-103.

Van Den Ende CHM. (1996). Comparison of High and Low Intensity Training in Well Controlled Rheumatoid Arthritis. Results of a Randomised Clinical Trial. Annals of Rheumatic Diseases, 55, 798-805.

Van Den Ende CHM. (1998). Dynamic Exercise Therapy in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Systematic Review.British Journal of Rheumatology, 37, 677-687.

Waagfjord J, Levange P, Certo C. (1990). Effects of Treadmill training on gait in a hemiparetic patient.Phys Ther 70, 549-560.

Werner C, Lindquist AR, Bardeleben A, Hesse S. (2007). The Influence of Treadmill Inclination on the Gait of Ambulatory Hemiparetic Subjects. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 21, 76-80.

† Wier LM, Hatcher MS, Triche EW, Lo AC. (2011). Effect of robot-assisted versus conventional body-weight-supported treadmill training on quality of life for people with multiple sclerosis. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development. 48(4), 483-492.

Please contact us if you need help finding any of the above articles or for any further information

Clinical Stroke
(2006). Study Helps Patients Walk Following Stroke. Advance for Physical Therapist & PT Assistants, 5.

† Aaslund MK, Helbostad JL, Moe-Nilssen R. (2011). Familiarisation to Body Weight Supported Treadmill Training for Patients Post-Stroke. Gait & Posture, 34, 467-472.

† Ada L. (2010). Mechanically Assisted Walking with Body Weight Support Results in More Independent Walking than Assisted Overground Walking in Non-Ambulatory Patients Early After Stroke: A Systematic Review. Journal of Physiotherapy, 56, 153-161.

† Ada L. (2010). Randomized Trial of Treadmill Walking with Body Weight Support to Establish Walking in Subacute Stroke-The MOBLILISE Trial. Stroke, 41, 1237-1242.

Alexander M. (1997). A 36-year-old woman recuperating from a stroke. JAMA, 277(24), 1970-1976.

† Andersen LL, et al. (2011). Effects of Intensive Physical Rehabilitation on Neuromuscular Adaptations in Adults with Poststroke Hemiparesis. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 25(10), 2808-2817.

† Barbeau H, Visintin M. (2003). Optimal outcomes obtained with body-weight support combined with treadmill training in stroke subjects. Arch Phys Med Rehabilitation, 84, 1458-1465.

† Breen J, Baker B, Snyder B, Thibault K. (2007, May). Body Weight Support Treadmill Training Improves Walking in Sub-Acute and Chronic Severely Disabled Stroke Patients. 24th Annual Brain Injury & Stroke Conference Brain Injury Association of New Hampshire.

Brouwer, B. (2009). A Comparison of Gait Biomechanics and Metabolic Requirements of Overground and Treadmill Walking on People with Stroke. Clinical Biomechanics, 24, 729-734.

Byl NN, Pitsch EA, Abrams GM. (2008). Functional outcomes can vary by dose: Learning-based sensorimotor training for patients stable poststroke. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 22(5), 494-504.

† Carter A. (2010). Rehabilitation After Stroke: Current State of Science. Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports, 10(3), 158-166.

Chen CC, Bode RK. (2011). Factors Influencing Therapists' Decision-Making in the Acceptance of New Technology Devices in Stroke Rehabilitation. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 90, 415-425.

† Chen G, Patten C. (2006). Treadmill training with harness support: Selection of parameters for individuals with poststroke hemiparesis. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 43(4), 485-498.

† Chen G, Patten C, Kothari D, Zajac F. (2005). Gait deviations associated with post-stroke hemiparesis: improvement during treadmill walking using weight support, speed, stiffness, and handrail hold. Gait and Posture, 22, 57-62.

† Chong D. (2007). Fall-Free Ambulation: Using body weight support gait training for a patient with pusher syndrome. Advance for Physical Therapist & PT Assistants, 18-19.

† Combs S. (2010). Balance, Balance Confidence, and Health-Related Quality of Life in Persons With Chronic Stroke After Body Weight-Supported Treadmill Training. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 91(19), 14-19.

†* Combs S. (2010). Effects of an Intensive, Task-Specific Rehabilitation Program for Individuals with Chronic Stroke: A Case Series. Disability and Rehabilitation. 32(8), 669-678.

† Combs S. (2010). Effects of a Short Burst of Gait Training with Body-Weight-Supported Treadmill Training for a Person with Chronic Stroke. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, 1-8.

† Combs S, Winchell Miller E, Forsyth E. (2007, July). Motor and functional outcomes of a patient post-stroke following combined activity and impairment level training. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, 23.

† Daly J, et al. (2007). Intra-limb coordination deficit in stroke survivors and response to treatment. Gait and Posture, 25, 412-418.

† Daly J, et al. (2011). Recovery of Coordinated Gait-Randomized Controlled Stroke Trial of Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) Versus no FES, with Weight-Supported Treadmill and Over-Ground Training. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 25(7), 588-596.

† Danielsson A, Sunnerhagen KS. (2002). Oxygen consumption during treadmill walking with and without body weight support in patients with hemiparesis after stroke and in healthy subjects. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 81, 953-957.

† Davies PM. (1999). Weight-supported treadmill training. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 13, 167-169.

† Dean CM. (2010). Treadmill Walking with Body Weight Support in Subacute Non-Ambulatory Stroke Improves Walking Capacity More than Overground Walking: a randomized trial. Journal of Physiotherapy, 56, 97-103.

Dean CM, Richard CL, Malouin F. (2000). Task-related circuit training improves performance of locomotor tasks in chronic stroke: A randomized, controlled pilot trial. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 81, 409-417.

Den Otter AR, Geurts A, Mulder T, Duysens J. (2006). Gait recover is not associated with changed in the temporal patterning of muscle activity during treadmill walking in patients with post-stroke hemiparesis.Clinical Neurophysiology, 117, 4-15.

Dickstein R. (2008). Rehabilitation of gait speed after stroke: a critical review of intervention approaches.Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 22, 649-660.

Dobkin BH. (2000). The subacute stroke patient: Neurorehabilitation for stroke patients. In: Cohen, SN (ed.). Management of Ischemic Stroke, McGraw-Hill, New York, 151-167.

Dobkin BH, Gregor R, Rowler E. (1991). A strategy to train locomotion in patients with chronic hemiplegic stroke. Annals of Neurology, 30, 278.

Duncan PW, et al. (2011). Body Weight Supported Treadmill Rehabilitation after Stroke, NEJM, 364(21), 2026-2036.

Eng JJ, Pang MYC, Ashe MC. (2008). Balance, falls, and bone health: Role of exercise in reducing fracture risk after stroke. Journal of Rehab Research & Development, 45(2), 297-314.

† Falmarin H, Golden S. (2008). Back on your feet: Balance programs help stroke survivors resume normal gait and activities. Advance for Directors in Rehabilitation, 49.

† Forrester LW, Wheaton LA, Luft AR. (2008). Exercise mediated locomotor recovery & lower-limb neuroplasticity after stroke. Journal of Rehab Research & Development, 45, 205-220.

† Foster JB. (2007, May) Stroke rehabilitation study results surprise researchers. Biomechanics.

Fritz SL, Light KE, Patterson TS, Behrman AL, Davis SB. (2005). Active Finger Extension Predicts Outcomes After Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy for Individuals With Hemiparesis After Stroke.Stroke, 36, 1172-1177.

Fritz SL, Pittman AL, Robinson AC, Orton SC, Rivers ED. (2007). An Intense Intervention for Improving Gait, Balance, and Mobility for Individuals with Chronic Stroke: a pilot study. Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy, 31, 71-76.

Hafer-Macho CE, Ryan AS, Ivey FM, Macko RF. (2008). Skeletal muscle changes after hemiparetic stroke and potential beneficial effects of exercise intervention strategies. Journal of Rehab Research & Development, 45, 261-272.

Haines TP. (2011). Dose-response relationship between physiotherapy resource provision with function and balance improvements in patients following stroke: a multi-centre observational study. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 17, 136-142.

Hase K, Fujiwara T, Tsuji T, Liu M. (2008). Effect of prosthetic gait training for stroke patients to induce use of paretic leg: a report of three cases. Keio Journal of Med, 57(3), 162-167.

Hassid E, Rose D, Commisaro J, Guttry M, Dobkin BH. (1997). Improved gait symmetry in hemiparetic stroke patients induced during body weight-supported treadmill stepping. Journal of Neurologic Rehabilitation, 11, 21-26.

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Clinical GENERAL Body Weight Support

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